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Relay - 26 January 2012

In this bumper edition we carry the latest global report on the state of volunteerism and, at the other end of the spectrum, a report on the global contribution of sport to wealth creation and economic growth. Of course, it’s also an Olympic Games year, so there will also be plenty to report between now and when the flame is lit in London on July 27

Other highlights:

  • Sports Development: A British study highlights the lack of sponsorship investment in women's elite sport compared with men’s, and outlines some of the opportunities that elite women’s’ sports offer to potential sponsors
  • Sport Science and Medicine: The Sport Science section includes articles on the incidence of hip fractures as rugby becomes more high-impact, 50 years of research into how to kick a soccer ball, and the use of music in elite athlete training;
  • Recreation: There are several articles on the value of green space and investment in national parks, with materials from Scotland, the United States and New Zealand.

In this Relay

High Performance Sport

London 2012: still on time and within budget – 5 Dec 2011
The December 2011 Olympic Quarterly Economic Report shows the overall funding package for the Games remains at 9.298 billion pounds with more than 500 million pounds of unallocated contingency available. With the successful delivery of the Olympic Park on time and within budget, the U.K. Government has been able to invest more in promoting Britain and generating economic growth off the back of the Games.  (Department for Culture, Media and Sport, U.K.)

System improvements set to ensure lasting high performance legacy beyond London 2012 – 8 Dec 2011
With the U.K. playing host to the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, U.K. Sport, the nation’s elite sports agency, remains confident in British athletes’ chances of success in London, but also in the ability to sustain success beyond London through the system-wide improvements made in high performance sport. (U.K. Sport)

Local crowds enjoy first Paralympic test event – 5 Dec 2011
The first Paralympic test event, the London International Goalball Tournament, has taken place in the Olympic Park. The Goalball test event was part of the London Prepares series, and showcased a sport for visually impaired athletes, for the first time. The event was also used by the London 2012 Organising Committee to test key operations ahead of next year’s Olympic Games. (London 2012)

Loughborough University to help deliver physical activity legacy for London 2012 Paralympic Games – 30 Nov 2011
Loughborough University has received almost 300,000 pounds to use the London 2012 Paralympic Games as a platform to increase physical activity rates amongst young adults with a disability, as well develop sporting excellence towards 2016. (Loughborough University)

First Winter Youth Olympic Games kick off in Innsbruck – 13 Jan 2012
The Innsbruck 2012 Winter Youth Olympic Games is officially under way with an Opening Ceremony held at the Bergisel stadium, the iconic Olympic venue in the heart of Austria’s Tyrolean capital, Innsbruck.  With the snow-capped mountains providing a breath-taking backdrop, over 1,000 athletes aged 15 to 18 were greeted by International Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge. (Olympic Movement)

Lillehammer confirmed as 2016 Winter Youth Games host – 8 Dec 2011
The International Olympic Committee has confirmed that the Norwegian town of Lillehammer, which staged the hugely popular 1994 Winter Olympics, would host the second edition of the Winter Youth Games in 2016. (SportBusiness)

IOC signs off on - sponsorship extension – 13 Jan 2012
The International Olympic Committee has confirmed one of its TOP Sponsors has agreed to extend its global sponsorship agreement until 2020 in a new deal that will cover four editions of the Olympics. (SportBusiness)

Rugby World Cup 2011: statistical review and match analysis – 26 Nov 2011
While RWC 2011 had its fair share of exciting tries, matches and performances – it will be also be remembered as the tournament that was characterised by intense competition which started in the first days of the tournament. This detailed report includes analysis of the improved performance by Tier 2 teams. (International Rugby Board)

Sir Donald Bradman given out as world's best cricketer– 22 Dec 2011
Sir Donald Bradman has been dislodged from the top of cricket's batting order by India's Little Master, according to a Griffith University researcher. Dr Nicholas Rohde claims statistics prove Indian batsman, Sachin Tendullkar, not Bradman, is the greatest test batsman who ever lived. (Griffith University)

Sports Development

Changing the game: outlook for the global sports market to 2015 – December 2011
The second edition of PricewaterhouseCoopers outlook for the sports industry predicts that global sports revenues will grow to US$145.3 billion over the period 2010 - 2015, at an annual compound growth rate of 3.7 percent. Drivers include a rebound in TV advertising, the on-going migration of sports to pay TV and the return of financial services and automotive companies to sponsorship, plus a number of major sports events in London, Sochi and Brazil over the period. (PricewaterhouseCoopers)

Big deal: the case for commercial investment in women's sport – October 2011
This report reveals there continues to be a lack of investment in elite women's sport in the U.K.  Sponsorship of women's sport in the U.K. amounted to just 0.5% of the total market. This compares to 61.1% for men's sport over the same period, between January 2010 and August 2011. The report cites ten reasons why the time is ripe to invest in women's sport including international success, low cost of entry, London 2012 and the powerful engagement opportunities offered by social media. (Women's Sport and Fitness Foundation)

AFL Players' Association releases annual development & wellbeing report – 16 Jan 2012
The AFL Players' Association has announced an extension to their PlayWell Programme, providing a framework for vocational, social, emotional, physical and psychological health to AFL footballers. The programme announcement came as the Players' Association released their annual Development and Wellbeing Report. (Australasian Leisure Management)

McCauley takes on BikeNZ role – 12 Jan 2012
New Zealand cycling legend Gordon McCauley has turned his attention from winning races to guiding the future of New Zealand cycling. BikeNZ announced today that McCauley has been appointed to the role of national under 19 men’s road coach. (CyclingNZ)

International Sport and Culture Association Annual report 2011 – 15 October 2011
The International Sport and Culture Association is a global platform open to organisations working in the field of Sport for All, recreational sports and physical activity, representing 40 million individual members from 65 countries. The report provides a comprehensive insight to ISCA’s work, achieved through cross sector collaboration and advocacy, as well as the numerous international projects that have been implemented throughout the past year (such as good governance in grassroots sport). (International Sport and Culture Association)

Sport for development - an impact study – 2011
A four-year impact study tested the hypothesis that sport contributes to the personal development and wellbeing of disadvantaged children and young people. It also sought to provide evidence and good practice in the use of sport for development. This can help enable organisations to develop their monitoring and evaluation methods, sharpen grant-making policies and practices, and build relationships across the sport for development sectors. (International Development through Sport, U.K.)

Global boost for Women's Rugby – 25 Nov 2011
The International Rugby Board is set to launch the IRB Women’s Rugby Plan, an exciting new strategic vision to drive the direction, development and growth of one of the world’s fastest growing sports throughout the next decade. (International Rugby Board)

Encouraging involvement in Big Society: a cultural and sporting perspective – November 2011
The report looks specifically at those who give time or money to the cultural and sporting sectors for which the U.K. Department for Culture, Media and Sport is responsible (i.e., the arts, heritage, museums, galleries and archives, libraries and sport), and provides a detailed demographic profile of those contributing to the Big Society, their engagement in and attitudes towards the cultural and sporting sectors and their wider public participation. (Department for Culture, Media and Sport, U.K.)

State of the world’s volunteerism report 2011 – 5 Dec 2011
The first United Nations State of the World’s Volunteerism Report  calls for making volunteer action an integral part of the new development consensus. The report was launched at the United Nations General Assembly in New York, United States, and many countries around the world, coinciding with the closure of the tenth anniversary of the International Year of Volunteers. (United Nations Volunteers)

Experiences and Legacies of Rugby World Cup 2011 Volunteer Programme – 19 Dec 2011
Volunteering at a major event like Rugby World Cup 2011 is a big commitment and should be an exciting opportunity. Victoria University have compiled research on the reasons for volunteering and how expectations and experiences may change over time. Victoria University completed three rounds of the research: surveying volunteers two months, then two weeks before the tournament, and in late October after the final game. The research results are now available for download. (Victoria University)

Sport England’s ‘satisfaction with the quality of the sporting experience' survey – 2011
This survey provides measurement and insight into the reason why people take part in sport and what impacts on their level of satisfaction. Detailed results, downloadable from this site, highlight satisfaction levels across 46 sports. The fieldwork for the 2011 survey took place between March and May 2011 with approximately 38,500 respondents completing the survey. (Sport England)

Sport Science, Medicine and Coaching

International Sport Coaching Framework update – September 2011
A joint communication from the International Council for Coach Education and the Association for Summer Olympic International Federations, outlining progress on the establishment of a comprehensive reference document to guide the development and recognition of coaching qualifications and systems on a global basis. (International Council for Coach Education)

WADA releases iPhone application for 2012 Prohibited List – 12 Jan 2012
There is now an iPhone application available for use that explains the World Anti-Doping Agency’s 2012 list of prohibited substances. It can be downloaded by following this link. (Paralympic Movement)

Is there a danger for myopia in anti-doping education? Comparative analysis of substance use and misuse in Olympic racket sports calls for a broader approach – 11 Oct 2011
Racket sports are typically not associated with doping. Despite the common characteristics of being non-contact and mostly individual, racket sports differ in their physiological demands, which might be reflected in substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate SUM among Slovenian Olympic racket sport players in the context of educational, socio-demographic and sport-specific factors. (Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy)

Australian Government sports injury prevention taskforce to make sport safer – 29 Nov 2011
A recently established Sports Injury Prevention Taskforce is expected to greatly aid the reduction of sports injury rates. An initiative of the Victorian Government, the taskforce will investigate the issue of sports injury prevention, supported by leading organisations, including Sports Medicine Australia, VicHealth and VicSport, and prominent academics in the sports injury field. (Sports Medicine Australia)

Acetabular fractures following rugby tackles: a case series – 5 Oct 2011
Acetabular fractures of the hip during sport are rare occurrences. This study over a six-month period creates concern that these high-energy injuries may become more frequent as rugby continues to adopt advanced training regimens. Protective equipment is unlikely to reduce the forces imparted across the hip joint; however, limiting ‘the tackle’ to only two players may well reduce the likelihood of this life-altering injury. (Journal of Medical Case Reports)

Biomechanical approaches to understanding the potentially injurious demands of gymnastic-style impact landings – 13 Jan 2012
Gymnasts are exposed to a high incidence of impact landings due to the execution of repeated dismount performances. Biomechanical research can help inform recent discussions surrounding a proposed rule change in potentially injurious gymnastic dismounting. The review examines existing understanding of the mechanisms influencing the impact loads incurred in gymnastic-style landings achieved using biomechanical approaches. (Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology)

Heading in football- could it lead to brain injury? – 9 Jan 2012
Could heading the ball in football lead to degenerative brain disease, like that seen in athletes in other sports? That's the question addressed by a review in the January issue of Neurosurgery, official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. (newswise)

The effect of exercise training on left ventricular function in young elite athletes – 12 Oct 2011
Regular training, particularly endurance exercise, induces structural myocardial adaptation, so-called “athlete’s heart”. In addition to the 2D standard echo parameters, assessment of myocardial function is currently possible by deformation parameters (strain, rotation and twist). The aim of this study is to assess the role of rotation and twist parameters to better characterise the heart performance in trained elite young athletes from different sports. (Cardiovascular Ultrasound)

Exercise-associated collapse: an evidence-based review and primer for clinicians – 26 Sep 2011
Exercise-associated collapse (EAC) commonly occurs after the completion of endurance running events. EAC is a collapse in conscious athletes who are unable to stand or walk unaided as a result of light headedness, faintness and dizziness or syncope causing a collapse that occurs after completion of an exertional event. Although EAC is perhaps the most common aetiology confronted by the medical provider attending to collapsed athletes in a finish-line tent, providers must first maintain vigilance for other potential life-threatening aetiologies that cause collapse, such as cardiac arrest, exertional heat stroke or exercise-associated hyponatraemia. (British Journal of Sports Medicine)

New sport nutrition register launched – 6 Dec 2011
Elite sportsmen and women in the U.K. can be assured of the nutritional advice they receive following the official launch of a new register for nutrition professionals working with elite athletes. The Sport and Exercise Nutrition Register has been developed and created in partnership between the U.K.’s leading association for dieticians, The British Dietetic Association, and the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences. (English Institute of Sport)

Nutritional considerations for the adolescent athlete – December 2011
Adolescence (i.e., 13 – 19 years of age) marks the beginning of increased energy demands, hormonal changes, transition into puberty and elevated rates of growth and development. A wide range of physiological variation exists within this age range; therefore, individual recommendations for carbohydrates, protein, fat and fluids should take into account both physical maturity, age and activity level. (National Strength and Conditioning Association)

Does peanut butter transfer from hands to sports equipment? – 14 Nov 2011
Peanut is a robust allergen. Many parents are concerned about shared sports equipment for children with peanut allergy. Basketball is a common sport for many children, and involves frequent contact between the ball and hands. We assessed the potential for peanut butter to transfer from peanut contaminated hands to basketballs, and the potential to transfer back to hands. (Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology)

Active Communities

The Northern Ireland Sport and Physical Activity Survey 2010 – 17 Nov 2011
The Northern Ireland Sport and Physical Activity Survey 2010 report provides, for the first time, a complete picture of adult participation in sport and physical activity across Northern Ireland. The SAPAS findings provide a platform from which to develop and implement specific policies and programmes aimed at increasing levels of participation amongst those most underrepresented in sport and physical recreation. (Sport Northern Ireland)

U.K. sports participation figures – 8 Dec 2011
New participation figures have been published which show a continuing strong performance by sports such as running, table tennis and boxing, but decreasing participation in other major sports such as swimming and tennis. 14.8 million adults are playing sport at least once a week. (Sport England)

Award-winning website for council sports ground updates– 2 Dec 2011
Porirua’s simple-to-use Sports Ground Updates website called has won the Excellence in Information Management Award and also came 3rd in the Excellence in Innovation Award. Website Manager Dale Hartle says Porirua’s sports teams, parents and coaches, and Council staff, are all benefiting from the new website. (Porirua City Council)

Kapiti Council plans for the future with significant land purchase – 6 Dec 2011
The Kapiti Coast District Council has purchased 35.57 hectares of farmland beside the Waikanae River for future use as sports fields and passive open space. The area is known as the “Howarth Block”. (Kapiti Coast District Council)

Engaging disabled people in sport  – 2011
This resource gives advice on how to engage disabled people  in sport. Chapters include current barriers and good sector partnership examples.  (English Federation of Disability Sport)

Sports Inclusion Disability Officer Programme Report 2009-2011 – 11 Jan 2012
This report summarises the the effectiveness of the Sports Inclusion Disability Officer initiative, in Donegal, Ireland. It includes the important outcomes under participation, training and education and the partnerships developed; all of these elements have been the backbone of the programme. The elements have also complimented the awareness raising evident through clubs, communities, schools, national governing bodies of sport and sports centres of people with disabilities and the need to continue to promote opportunity and inclusion. (Active Donegal)


Campaign targets high Maori drowning rates – 13 Jan 2012
Water Safety New Zealand – in conjunction with sponsor New Zealand Post – is launching a campaign aimed squarely at improving the water safety skills of Maori. The campaign - Kia Maanu, Kia Ora! [also called Stay Afloat Stay Alive] - is in response to the consistent over representation of Maori in New Zealand’s drowning statistics. Around 15% of New Zealanders identify themselves as of Maori origin – but the proportion of drowning deaths involving Maori is consistently higher – at 20% or more. (Water Safety New Zealand)

Take care outdoors when weather settles – 13 Jan 2012
Trampers, hunters and other back country enthusiasts, as well as those going into the outdoors much closer to home, are encouraged to plan ahead, be vigilant and stay safe when venturing into the outdoors. (New Zealand Mountain Safety Council )

The impact of noise on recreationists and wildlife in New Zealand’s natural areas – November 2011
This report reviews the literature about noise effects on recreationists and wildlife in New Zealand’s natural areas. International literature on the nature of noise impacts, factors that influence them, responses to noise and key theoretical concepts are summarised. (Department of Conservation)

Symposium highlights adventure racing concern – 10 Nov 2011
The burgeoning popularity of adventure racing events in national parks is causing increasing environmental concern, says research from Griffith and Murdoch Universities. (Griffith University)

What is green space worth? – 9 Jan 2012
Recent patterns of residential development in Australian cities are threatening to overwhelm green  space in our urban cores. Policies of urban consolidation have concentrated medium to high density residential development in inner ring suburbs where green space is comparatively scarce. (The Conversation)

Scotland’s greenspace in decline? – 12 Dec 2011
A survey published by greenspace scotland shows that Scots are using urban greenspaces less often than in previous years. Fewer people thought their local greenspace was a good place for their children to play or a safe place for physical activity. That may explain why fewer Scots are taking a trip to their local park. The greenspace scotland Omnibus Survey 2011 can be found by following this link. (Greenspace Scotland)

Town Belt review is one step closer – 1 Dec 2011
Wellington City Council's Strategy and Policy Committee has approved nine guiding principles that aim to protect and enhance the city's Town Belt in perpetuity. The agreement on the guiding principles paves the way for a comprehensive revision of the Town Belt management plan next year. The review will be subject to full public consultation. (Wellington City Council)

U.S. annual city parks data released – 8 Dec 2011
The Trust for Public Land has released its most recent data on city park systems from across the country.  The report shows that the 100 largest cities added more than 120 parks in the past year; reflecting urban parks are more important than ever as cities grow larger and denser. Despite aggregate increases in acreage and facilities across the U.S., many city park departments are struggling with funding shortages. The report can be found by following this link. (Trust for Public Land)

Made in America - investing in National Parks for our heritage and our economy – November 2011
America’s national parks drive local economies, provide quality jobs and affordable family vacations, and protect irreplaceable resources, all for a tiny fraction of the federal budget. But now the nation’s greatest places face significant long-term funding cuts which could mean trouble for many iconic parks—as well as the rangers, visitors, and wildlife who enjoy them. (National Parks Conservation Association)

Special report on camping - 21 Dec 2011
This report provides data and analysis on camping participation in the United States, including psychographic profiles, camping preferences and buying behaviour. It also explores opportunities in the camping industry and the overall future of camping. The findings are based on an online survey of more than 40,000 Americans ages six and older and a supplemental survey of camping participants 18 and older. (Outdoor Foundation)

Young People

Olympism practised through sport: an insight from youth – 2011
This study investigates nine youths' understanding of Olympic Ideals (Olympism) and their perceptions on whether these ideals have importance in the practice of sport. A qualitative case study is used in conjunction with a humanistic-critical theoretical framework to gather and analyse data. (University of Canterbury)

Creating a sporting habit for life – 10 Jan 2012
Sport England and Culture Secretary Jeremy Hunt has announced details of a new five-year youth and community sport strategy that will deliver on Lord Coe’s 2012 Games bid promise to inspire a generation to get involved in sport.  The strategy can be found by following this link. (Sport England)

UK Premier League 4 Sport programme smashes engagement targets – 12 Jan 2012
A pioneering sports participation programme has been praised for beating its target of engaging 25,000 young people in four Olympic sports by more than 50 per cent. Since the Premier League 4 Sport programme began in 2009, it has provided more than 39,000 youngsters across the country with an opportunity to try badminton, judo, table tennis and volleyball. An additional £2 million of funding from the Premier League will double the number of Olympic sports with basketball, handball, hockey and netball now on offer. (Department for Culture, Media and Sport, UK)

Leading campaigner for protection of child athletes is honoured with OBE – 16 Jan 2012
Professor Celia Brackenridge, a pioneering campaigner and researcher into gender equality and child protection in sport has received an OBE in the Queen’s New Year’s Honour’s list. (Brunel University)

Kids need adventure - parents need to teach them how – 6 Dec 2011
Research conducted by One Poll in the U.K. reported 85% of children aged six to 12 longing for more adventure in their lives, while 85% of parents said adventure should be an important part of their children’s lives. According to this poll, over half of children have never camped out, not even in their back garden, nor lain down to watch the stars in the night sky or watched the sun rise. (Family Adventure Project)

Sowing the seeds - reconnecting London's children with nature – 17 Nov 2011
The report  sets out a new vision for children’s relationship with nature, and maps out a plan to reintroduce nature into their lives. Natural environments are said to have restorative qualities that help in relaxing and coping with everyday stress. They are claimed to promote adaptive processes in child development, for instance, motor fitness, physical competence and self-confidence. (London Sustainable Development Commission)

Mobilising young women and girls from disadvantaged communities – 2011
A British report that outlines the barriers to sport participation by young British women and sets out potential tools and methods to help address these barriers. (Active Women, StreetGames U.K.)

Who says girls don’t like PE? – 16 Sep 2011
Research shows they shy away from sport and other physical activities, but initiatives in Scotland are finding their alienation from the subject is far from inevitable. The evidence is stark: most teenage girls do not like sport, PE or physical activity. The most recent national statistics show that only 41 per cent of girls aged 13-15 in Scotland meet the target of an hour’s physical activity a day, compared with 70 per cent of boys. But that is not the whole picture. Projects throughout the country are proving that adolescent girls will embrace an active lifestyle - provided they are not alienated by PE. (Times Educational Supplement Scotland)

Preferred sporting environment and coaching behaviours: perspectives from Canadian high school athletes – 2011
This study examined the sporting environment and coaching behaviours preferred by Canadian high school athletes. Thirty athletes (23 boys, seven girls) between the ages of 13 and 18 years took part in individual semi-structured interviews lasting between 19 and 39 minutes. Participants were asked to describe what type of environment they believe should be fostered in high school sport and to indicate what constitutes effective versus ineffective coaches in this context. (Physical & Health Education Academic Journal)

Australian Sport 4 All Project- 2011
Sport 4 All is a four-year, A$20 million project to increase participation in community sport and recreation throughout Western Australia. This program will help 30,000 disadvantaged WA children to join a sport or recreation club. (Department of Sport and Recreation, WA)

Useful Weblinks

NASPE's Coaches Toolbox
This website, produced by the US National Association for Sport and Physical Education, provides the latest must-have information and resources about safety and injury prevention, skill development, strength training, peak performance, post-workout recovery, nutrition, sport health care, sport psychology and professional development.

Play by the Rules online training course now live
Australian organisation ‘Play by the Rules’ has launched a new free online training course. The course features two new modules — ‘Child Protection’ and ‘Harassment and Discrimination’. The modules provide information for coaches, administrators, officials, players, parents and spectators on their rights and responsibilities under discrimination and child protection laws. They are succinct, user-friendly and feature the latest interactive technology, including case studies, practical scenarios and quizzes.

New look for Walking Access Commission website and e-newsletter
The New Zealand Walking Access Commission has created a new-look e-newsletter and is upgrading its website to make it easier for people to find information about outdoor access and responsible behaviour in the outdoors.